The Canadian Premature Babies Foundation (CPBF) contracted RPI to conduct a detailed environmental scan of premature birth in Canada. The work included an extensive review and summary of the grey and academic literature, and focus groups and interviews with over 30 key informants from across the country, including specialists, nurses, researchers, and representatives from non-profit groups. The literature review addressed the full continuum of care, including prenatal care; birth, care provided in hospital, and short-term follow-up care (i.e., discharge and immediate supports at home); and long-term needs and care. The key informant interviews and focus groups addressed only birth, care provided in hospital, and short-term follow-up care in order to keep the scope manageable. The final report synthesized and summarized the findings from all lines of evidence and provided recommendations for addressing premature birth in Canada.